Monday, December 12, 2011

THE GORGE - Backcountry Skiing

The quiet place that offers amazing backcountry ski terrain, the Gorge, as many call it, attracts many backcountry skiers and outdoor enthusiasts alike. We are lucky enough every couple of years that the road gets maintained for logging/forestry up and down the valley. This allows cheap ski bums like myself a chance to drive my car up the road and get a taste of the sick ski terrain! Sure if you have a sled you can work you way up there anywhere you want. But for these few weeks this year that the road is open, its good to take full advantage of the short drive from the Okanagan or Revy and go shred it up.

And there is lots of terrain; North & East facing alpine bowls, steep glades (and mellow ones too), drops, steep chutes, and fine views of the surrounding valleys.  Included here (printable version) is just a small map that should help you get into the valley and explore. KM 15 and 18 are popular starting points (with nice parking pullouts) that will allow you straight forward approaches into a wealth of skiing. Get out and adventure while you can. The logging (as of December 9th, 2011) has basically stopped deep in the valley, so until the next big snowfall you should be able to still get in there. Bring chains, a saw, a multi frequency radio and good tires and you should be good to go. Have fun out there!!!

Thursday, December 1, 2011

Great Online Sources

Listed here are a few great online sources for climbing, skiing and backcountry information. Recently, as of this November, the Avalanche Bulletins in western Canada have been given a facelift. Due to some really hard work and research, there has been a new format for which the bulletin's are being posted. Good illustrations and thorough information make these bulletins really easy to use and a great asset to planning any outdoor pursuits in avy country. These bulletins are available via Parks Canada and

Parks Canada & B.C Avy Bulletins: Western Canada Avalanche

Another cool little web source I found was an online guide to the classic Waterfall Ice Climbs in the Canadian Rockies. As many know, the famed guidebook is now out of print (?) and coming by one is next to impossible (without some kind of bribe to a buddy). The online guide gives some great info to many of the classic climbs listed in the guidebook.

Waterfall Ice In The Rockies: Select Guidebook

And one last source that I have been using for years has been getting spruced up. The Grav Sports Ice Conditions page, started by Will Gadd and friend(s) has really become a huge source of information. If its new routes your looking for, beta on approaches or just a partner, just send out a message. The ice community in the Rockies is super friendly and always willing to share with others.

Grav-Sports Ice: Conditions

Have fun out there!

Sunday, November 20, 2011

Climb Smarter & Safer

As ice climbing season approaches we are all ancy to get out and play. Early season routes are now coming in and the ice season (in the canadian rockies anyway) has begun. Ice climbing is a dangerous sport, but fun none the less. Over the years I have taken lots of pointers from partners and such that have really helped me progress in becoming a better and safer climber. Over the next little while I will be posting some of my own tips as well as some more from Climbing magazine (cause I think they do a real good job with awesome illustrations) Hope these help, feel free to comment...


By David Roetzel
Illustration by Mike Clelland

Regardless of how much better ice-climbing equipment gets — better tools, easier-to-place screws, heel spurs, or better clothing — ice climbing has a different learning curve than rock, and, in general, it’s best not to fall off. Trial, error, and experience are the keys to improvement. Here are a few tips to help you along the curve.
Tip your lid, you’ll be glad you did. Dodging dinner plates of ice is a dangerous part of ice climbing. Like any dodge game, you’re bound to take some hits, but where you take your lumps is the real concern. Use your helmet for what it was designed for — taking impacts. To be combat ready, your helmet’s front brim should be positioned just above your eyebrows and securely positioned on your head.
Always be alert for the sights and sounds of ice breaking loose — these are your best warnings that you’re about to contend with falling ice. Next time you’re swinging and a piece of ice comes loose, tilt your head down and slightly towards the arm that’s swinging. If done properly, the brim of your helmet should end up just lower than your eye’s horizontal plane. This is a subtle movement — tip your head too far forward and you expose your cervical spine; tip it too little and the ice might hit your face. Looking up with your eyes while maintaining the tipped-brim position allows you to see, and keeps you protected.
Perpendicular and flat make crampon placements fat. Unlike in rock climbing where we often stand on our tip-toes, sound crampon placements result from keeping your feet flat so your crampons remain horizontal. Standing on your toes brings your heels up, forcing your front points down, possibly causing them to sheer. To avoid the whip, keep your heels level with, or, lower than, your front points. This angle of attack provides the most secure crampon placement, and brings your secondary points closer to the ice.
This is obvious when you’re kicking straight in front of you, but what happens when you need to kick out to either side? More often than not, kicking to the side leaves your inside points touching and the outside points barely contacting ice. To counter this, move your heel away from your body by rotating the top of your leg inside your hip’s ball-and-socket joint. Your foot and front points should now be perpendicular to the ice. As you kick, remember to keep your toes up and your heel low, allowing both the front points and the secondary points to hit the ice.
Kicking with a stiffy to clear a bulge. Clearing an ice bulge can be difficult. Kicking in the typical manner (where your knee joint acts as a hinge) almost always leaves your front points pointing downwards, not straight in. Rather than using your knee like a hinge, gently lock it, lift the front of your crampons up and swing your leg from the hip. Ideally, your knee remains stiff throughout the motion, keeping your toes higher than your heels, which helps engage your front and secondary points at the moment of impact.

Recommended Route

Seeing on how it is now officially ice climbing season (not for all of us but close) I figured this would be a good time to start changing it up a little.

When I used to live in Banff, there was this amazing little route that was a few minutes drive from my house with a quick approach that was a great way to spend an afternoon (or morning). I never saw anyone else out there, I usually set the hiking track, and the ice was always so good. Maybe it wasn't this big pumpy grade 5 multi pitch but, with 25m of beautiful blue ice you could set an anchor and do as many laps as you wanted. Also, a very good place to get someone into the sport; comfortable. As far as I know this climb is only threatened by avalanche during big cycles (ie: high hazard, lots of storm snow) as it is located almost at the bottom of a drainage/creek. It is usually formed up by December and it just gets fatter as the season progresses. By March the sun starts to hit it more and the ice usually deteriorates, but from my experience it is pretty dependable every season by the start of December. A good Christmas climb???!!!

WI3 - 25M
Approach: Turn onto Highway 1A (Bow Valley Parkway) from Banff (10mins) and drive about 1.5km to a small interpretive pull-out (reference). Drive down another 150/200m or so until you hit a small stream that crosses the road (sparse trees). Pull-over, park here and head up the gully/creek for 1km to the route. At first the trail is in the woods and as you get further up you will notice the creek (icy under your feet). Eventually the creek will get steeper and more frozen (sometimes crampons will be needed here) to where it will become a small canyon where a big log jam will need to be passed. The falls should be visible from here.

Climb: Climb a little Wi1 to a beautiful curtain with lots of variations (the middle usually being the steepest. Rappel off V-Thread. Going exploring up the canyon is kinda fun too!

Recommended Route(s)

Just back from an excellent road trip to the U.S.A I discovered these fantastic climbs called 'Towering Inferno' and 'Looney Binge' at the Owen's River Gorge.  Both climbs are located at the Eldorado Roof area in the Inner Gorge. One route climbs up the roof and the other traverses the lip of it.

At first glance you don't know what to think of the Gorge (sure Im not the first), big power lines, and choss. But then as you enter the canyons you realize the vast amount of climbing here. From the first route we climbed I was pretty satisfied. Climb any route in Marty Lewis' guide 4 stars or more (lots...) and I guarantee you wont be disappointed. Here I will just outline a couple of climbs that really stood out for me, and that should not be missed!

5.11A - 42M - 15 Bolts - SPORT
Start on the far right end of the Eldorodo Roof in a quaint little belay spot underneath a big left facing corner/dihedral. Climb 4 bolts of stemming and crack climbing to the start of the traverse (crux). From here traverse left past many bolts across the face with great pleasure. A 70m rope will touch down when lowering off into the river, or continue on 4 more pitches of mid 5.11.

5.12C - 70M Rope - 18 Bolts - SPORT
Starts more towards the left side of the roof. Begin by climbing a steep bulge to an undercling (tricky) then into a funky dihedral. From here the fun begins, follow the crazy overhanging flake system (see photo) passing many bolts and trying to fight the pump until you hit the final vertical headwall. Take a rest and finish by climbing the face trending right to the anchors of the first pitch of 'Towering Inferno'. Likely one of the best roofs you'll ever climb!

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Frenchman Coulee Basalt Rock Climbing

An excellent destination for the fall, Frenchman Coulee near Vantage, Washington has a great variety of Volcanic Basalt climbing.  From big splitter cracks to fun steep sport climbs, the Coulee has a little something for everyone, side by side. It is easy to climb a dozen routes on one little section of cliff. During summer it tends to be a bit hot (100) here mid-summer so the spring and fall are ideal! If you are living in B.C and you are looking to escape the fall rain and head south but you dont have the time, this is the spot! Located in the rain shadow of the Coast Mountains, the Coulee is a very diverse desert and receives much less rain than some of the other Washington state climbing areas. Most of the walls are south facing and on the right day you can climb here right into November. Bring your mountain bike as well, there are lots of fun little trails all around the Echo Basin. ENJOY

Included here is a Select Guide of the area that coincides well with 'Frenchman Coulee' by Marlene Ford & Jim Yoder.

Vantage Topo: Frenchman Coulee Guide

Monday, October 3, 2011

REVELSTOKE Rock Climbing Webpage

For all your Revelstoke climbing needs.
Basically everything the guidebook offers and more. Lots of updates and lots of great info.
It's amazing the development that has happened here in last few years! Most recently Cranberry Cliffs/Boulders, and the big Victor Lake Wall the past two summers. Get out there!!!

The Page:

Link to Victor Lake Wall: New Routes
Cranberry Walls: New Crag/Routes

Climb Smarter & Safer

This will be a new addition to the page. I have been seeing and reading about lots of accidents lately. As well as learning a lot of new things/tricks that I never knew. So...... this will be a chance for some readers/climbers to learn something new about Climbing Smarter & Safer.  In climbing everyone has their opinion and their own ways of doing things, super safe or not, this is just mine and that of some others that I would like to share. Enjoy

The first one will be about cleaning anchors and belaying from anchors. I have seen many a sport climber use a single quickdraw for safety at a rappel anchor. Anything can happen out there and why not take a little extra time at least have a locked system between you and the ground. This next article is from climbing magazine!!!

Tech Tips: Anchors Away

By Lee Lang / Illustrations by Jamie Givens

Using personal anchor tethers safely
Traditionally, climbers have anchored to the belay by tying in directly with the rope. Now, many prefer the convenience of personal anchor tethers specifically designed for this purpose for belays, as well as for cleaning the top anchor on a sport climb or anchoring during multi-pitch rappels. When used properly, these systems can be safe and strong, but when used improperly, they can lead to fatal accidents.
A 2007 incident on the Grand Capucin near Chamonix, France, exemplifies the danger: A climber fell less than two feet onto the Dyneema sling attaching him to his anchor; the resulting impact broke the anchor sling, and the climber fell to his death. Ledges break, climbers slip—and the result can be dynamic loading of an anchor.
All climbing cord and webbing was once made from nylon, which stretches slightly, absorbing energy. Stronger materials such as Spectra and Dyneema now allow climbers to save weight, but lack the ability to absorb energy through stretch. When used in systems with an energyabsorbing component—such as in quickdraws, where the dynamic rope clipped to the draws absorbs energy—these materials excel. When they’re used in a system with no energy-absorbing component, any dynamic event results in extremely high impact forces.
Drop tests demonstrate the danger. DMM tested an assorted batch of Dyneema and nylon slings, using a 176-pound weight in fall-factor 1 (120cm drop on 120cm sling) and fall-factor 2 (240cm drop on 120cm sling) scenarios ( Even when the Dyneema slings did not fail, the impact force (18–22+ kN) delivered to the climber likely would have resulted in massive or fatal injury.
Rigging for Rescue also tested a variety of personal lanyards and anchors, using 176-pound and 220-pound loads ( Spectra daisy chains began to fail at a fall factor of 0.25: a 220-pound weight dropped nine inches on a 36-inch daisy chain. At a fall factor of 0.5 (18-inch drop on a 36-inch daisy), virtually every daisy chain failed.
Consider the personal anchor systems that climbers are using today:

These are aid climbers’ tools, used to link one’s harness to aiders or ascenders, but they’re commonly and improperly used as personal anchor tethers. Daisy chains should not be used as anchoring systems, for two important reasons. First, the best-case scenario for a climber dynamically loading a daisy chain is a perilously harsh impact that could break the daisy, rip the anchor, or injure the climber. Second, it is extremely easy to clip a daisy chain in such a way that you are clipped through loops that only are designed to hold body weight. Watch the Black Diamond video illustrating these points
Specially designed tethers—such as the Metolius PAS, Blue Water Titan, and Sterling Chain Reactor—overcome a key weakness with daisy chains: the potential for improper clipping through loops. Still, most are made partly with Spectra or Dyneema (the Chain Reactor is 100 percent nylon), and none is intended to absorb much energy or withstand dynamic loading. During Rigging For Rescue’s drop tests, the PAS withstood a factor-1 fall with a 220-pound weight, but the resulting impact force was 19 kN. The potential for a factor-1 fall occurs when your waist is at the same height as the anchor and the system is completely slack.

If you use an anchor system, be aware of the risks and how to minimize them. Except for daisy chains, which were never designed to be used as personal anchors, tethers are safe, but only if they are never placed in a situation where dynamic loads could occur—the kind of load that could happen in the illustration at left. Keep the attachment weighted at all times! Even a short fall onto an anchor tether, especially if it is made of Spectra or Dyneema, can generate huge forces.

Thursday, July 21, 2011


Click on this link and it will bring you to this awesome music site called SOUNDCLOUD.
The band is called THE KICKDRUMS, they are from Manhattan and they are a blend of indie, rock and hip hop. Very original and I am sure you will like them! The link will let you listen to their new album as many times as you want, you just cant download it. ENJOY!

Link: The Kickdrums On SoundCLOUD Music

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Music Download Page Updated for Your Pleasure

Click on the "Music" link on the "Download It" column on the right hand side of the page.
I've updated the music so you have a organized list of the songs that you can find a little easier!

Friday, June 17, 2011

Recommended Route(s)

Another great all-time Revelstoke classic!


Climb up the right side of the big cave, clip your first bolt, and then its on. Side ways holds, feet and big moves lead to a tricky crux and a final roof. A classic at the grade and a must for any visitor to Begbie Bluffs. Combine this route with a couple more on this wall and you will leave a happy climber. The picture include here is courtesy of my Japanese friend Ryo! Get on it!


It's been a while since I posted some music.....
Now I will post it a little different way, I am gonna put a link to YoUTUbE so you can watch a sweet video of the song as well. Let me know if you guys/gals would like the actual MP3 link to the song, and I would be more than willing to link it on the site.

A couple of bands/songs that Im psyche on at the moment:

The Temper Trap - Sweet Disposition

Phantogram - Let Me Go

Shapeshifter - Twin Galaxies

Passion Pit - Swimming In The Flood

Slightly Stoopid - Mellow Mood

Cougar Canyon Climber's Survey

A great grade survey that Lyle put together. Many new climbers to Cougar Canyon feel that some of the routes are tad bit sandbagged, in my opinion some are a little off, but this gave people a chance to put in their two cents. After you get use to the climbing here in Vernon, things at least feel like they are consistent to the area(s).

Courtesy of Lyle Knight:

"From the “it’s just data” category, here’s the results from the Cougar Canyon grade survey.  Have a look, share it around by email or blog, it’s a fairly limited response (15) and not a lot of surprises.   At the end of the day future guidebook authors can take the opinions under advisement in concert with their own views"

The Survey: Cougar Canyon Grade Comparison Survey

Aberdeen Columns Rock Climbing Guide Update

Aberdeen Wall
An updated version of the Aberdeen Columbs basalt crack climbing guide is now available courtesy of local Vernon resident Lyle Knight. As of this June, activity at the Columns has been high, with lots of visiting climbers coming for a taste of the very unique climbing. A great addition to the Vernon climbing scene. Thanks to Lyle, John and Gary for all the hard work. See you out there!

Updated Guide: Aberdeen Columns Guide

Max Erwin at the Columns, photo courtesy of Jason Dyck.

Just Like Ice Climbing 5.10a

Friday, May 27, 2011

The Cougar Canyon Challenge!

I have put together a sweet list of routes that if done in a day would offer a great challenge. A sport route list from 10a to 11c, and a crack climbs list that includes all the good clean cracks that cougar offers. Something for someone to aspire to or just a good list of some routes worthy of a visitors attention or a locals' efforts. Let me know what you think (or if there are any that I am missing out on), I feel these routes, from my experiences (and from some other feedback) are some of the best Vernon has to offer! ENJOY! Comment here if you get it done! Thanks.....

(In A Day)
Careful planning  would be necessary to make it all happen, but totally do-able for anyone up for a challenge! It could be a worthy objective for those looking for something(s) to work towards as well (tick list?!). Climb up to # 8 for a sweet 5.10 challenge!

3: BLOWDOWN – 5.10B – 8 BOLTS – 23M – TOAD HALL
4: RETIRED – 5.10C – 15 BOLTS – 35M – TOAD HALL
8: FIREARMS – 5.10D – 13 BOLTS – 30M - GAMMA

(In A Day)
Again, careful planning would be essential for this to all go down successfully, but a worthy objective in it’s own right. This list could be also done as a sort of longer-term goal or a tick list.

1: HORNDOG – 5.7 – GEAR TO 3” – 20M – BETA WALL
3: UNDERHANDED – 5.8/5.10.C – GEAR TO 2” – 15M  (2 CRACKS)
4: COUGAR’S TOOTH – 5.8/5.9 – GEAR TO 3” – 15M  (2 CRACKS)– SECRET WALL
6: GEAR 4 FEAR – 510.C – GEAR TO 3” – 2 BOLTS – 32M/25M (2 PITCHES)         COUGAR WALL
8: POWERLINE – 5.10+ - GEAR TO 2” – 4 BOLTS – 25M – BETA WALL

Monday, May 23, 2011

Cougar Canyon Climbing Update!!

A great update, compliments of Lyle Knight.
Red Lines are gear routes, white lines are sport routes!

Cougar Wall Topo - 2011
Cougar Canyon, BC

A. Don Cougar Melon Cap 5.9 - Gear
B. Cougar Crack 5.10d - Mixed
C. Cougar Arete 5.10c - Sport
D. Cougar 1 5.9 - Gear
E. Dirty Old Men 5.9 - Gear
F. Paving Paradise 5.10a - Sport
G. Gear For Fear 5.10c - Gear
H. Stellar 5.10a - Sport
I. Mantle Breakdown 5.11b - Sport
J. Tres Amigos 5.9 - Mixed
K. Planet of the Apes 5.10c - Sport
L. Pocket Toss 5.11d - Sport
M. Thor's Hammer 5.7 - Gear
N. Bonsai 5.7 - Gear
O. Afterglow 5.10+ - Sport
P. Skilled or Killed 5.10b/c - Gear

Syphon Creek Climbing - Salmon Arm Rock Climbing!

I have been recently climbing at an awesome crag in Salmon Arm called Syphon Creek. The climbing was great, and although there was not a ton of climbing, there were some really nice moderate roots on high quality granite. Some of the cracks reminded me of Squamish a little. Anyways, I just wanted to give some extended beta, so anyone visiting this site can get there no problem and enjoy the scenic waterfall, good rock and wonderful atmosphere.

To start off, the guidebook 'Shuswap Rock' only gives directions that make sense if you are from the area and before there was residential development. So just a fine tuning for those who are not farmiliar with the Shuswap. If you drive west on the Trans-Canada Highway from Salmon Arm, as you leave town the highway shoots north (the lake is now on your right), after about 8kms from the edge of Salmon Arm you will see a sign indicating Pierre's Point Rd. (campsite/cottages) on your right. A few meters before this look for 50th Ave. NW on your left. Hang a left here and continue past where it hooks south and turns into 50th St. NW.(just stay on the pavement) After 2.5kms from the TCH you hang a right on 40th Ave. NW, where there will be Gleneden Fire Hall on your left. Follow this for 1km until you see a dirt parking lot on your left. From here the crag is about a 15-20 minutes hike up stream. With the Shuswap Rock Guidebook you should be good to go!

These next routes of mention are probally the best here (the majority of). No Refunds is one of the best layaway/layback sport climbs Ive ever done and the rest of the cracks/climbs have a very interesting feel to them. Aesthetic would be the word that comes to mind. Although there are only a few climbs, they are worth the visit! Lots of cool moves that make the climbs feel longer than they are.

Once there some recommended classics I got on were:

DERAILED - 5.8+ -20m - GEAR

LAY ME DOWN - 5.9+ - 22m - GEAR (white)
NO REFUNDS - 5.10+ - 20m - SPORT (yellow)

LONE PINE - 5.10 - 20m - BOLTS (blue)
THE FORT -  5.7 - 20M - GEAR (white)

LEDGE-IBLE - 5.7+ - 18M - GEAR

Also at the waterfall crag are these two gems (no pics sorry):

ZIG ZAG - 5.8 - 20m - GEAR (right hand crack route)
IRON CROSS - 5.10 - 20m - MIXED (left hand route)

Recommended Route(s)

These climbs are located at the Ellison Park - Lakeside Cliff (Boulder Traverse) and have been recently cleaned up! Go send em'


A classic sandbagg at the grade. Climbs up to a single bolt near the left side of the boulder traverse to a big ledge, then into the big roof/left facing corner. The crux comes as soon as you step off the ledge, with small feet, slopey pinches and a really fun sequence. Quite the short little route!


This stout route climbs the big right facing corner feature on the right side of the cliff. A steep awkward start leads past a couple of tricky sections, then to a crack and a final lunge onto the upper face. Expect a good pump getting up this one!


This climb starts on the steep face just to the right of 'Red Hangers'. Climb past a few bolts of generally straight forward climbing until the crux sequence begins, very tiny holds and a big deadpoint will see you through (hopefully) to a really nice crimpy finish. Pumpy and intricate! Supposedly (rumour has it) this route has had a key hold(s) come off in the crux section, hence the bump up in the grade. I would love to get some feedback on this (feel free to comment)!

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

New Boulder Problems In Vernon!

Springtime is here and recently I have been doing some cleaning and trail maintenance in Cougar Canyon and at nearby Ellison Provincial Park. During the process there has been some new problems that I've discovered and some of them are definitely destined to become classics! Cougar keeps surprising me with more and more beautifully featured rock popping out of nowhere. And as well a nearby area in the vicinity of Ellison (Granite I might add) has really revealed some good potential and some nice problems on excellent rock only minutes from the road. Here are some updates (and photos) of the problems, and I will be adding the Cougar additions to a new updated guidebook that I will post come summer time. ENJOY!


1 - Cool Breeze - V3/5
Head past the 'slackline boulder' take a right towards 'Jaws' and instead of heading right head left, follow tape/cairns and you will end up at two very chilly caves. The one in front of you on right is 'Cool Breeze'.

Start low down in the cave on the left. Bad feet lead you onto the face where the more left you stay the harder it becomes. Very cool crimps and grippy rock is the highlight of this one. Many variations are possible, the more right you stay the easier it is. Named after the freezer type breeze that comes from the icy cave.

2 - Achilles - V6
Head towards the Secret Boulders from the 'Down Under' problem, and after about 25m you will see this pedestal type boulder on your left. Marked with cairns and tape.

Start with a sloper for the left and a small hold in the overhang for the right. Heel hook (essential) and try your best by campus-ing, etc.. to gain the left trending rail. Once established, get you feet out and gun for crappy holds to the finish. Great movement and pumpy moves (good landing, high finish).

3/4 - Cold FX Cave - V2/V5
Head past the 'slackline boulder' take a right towards 'Jaws' and instead of heading right head left, follow tape/cairns and you will end up at two very chilly caves. The one in front of you on the left is 'Cold FX'.

Find to positive holds deep down in the cave, bump up to bigger ones, throw out left and then up to the lip and over to finish. The right variation (harder) uses and desperate rail and a small sidepull to gain the lip.


5 - Talons - V3

Start on a big jug down low in the cave, throw out right to a sloper/sidepull, gun for the lip, then heel hook and move out left until its possible to top out. Classic granite problem! (Good landing)

7/8 - Stands With A Fist - V2//1

Start on two low pinchy type holds. Move up the arete with wild feet and small holds to a fun top out. Firing out right after the start eases the grade with bigger holds to choose from. Great short granite problem

9 - Scarecrow - V4+
Even more Shhhhh....

Start low on the slopey rail. Gun for the lip and start out right. awkward feet and desperate (sweet) holds will see you through to the highest point of the boulder. Would be a classic in Squamish. Fun granite!

10 - Men In White Gloves - V2
Even more Shhhh....

Start low on the slopey rail but go straight up to the lip. Climb up over onto the slab with heel hooks and no holds (friction).

Let me know if anyone has any more questions about these problems or their whereabouts!!!